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Main positions:Director, High Performance Computing Platform, PKU
Degree:Doctoral degree
School/Department:Institute of Theoretical Physics

Lei Yian


Education Level: Postgraduate (Doctoral)

Administrative Position: Associate Professor

Alma Mater: Peking University


Current position: Home / Blog
Global Approximation Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Global Approximation Interpretation (Standard Interpretation) PDF Full Text in English (version Sep. 2)

A longer Abstract

Quantum mechanics (QM) understands the physical world from the perspective of waves. In the context of QM, quantum is an ideal wave, which extends to the entire space and is ideally coherent; that is, the phase difference between any two points only depends on the distance of the points. The full-space property of an ideal wave is its globality. In the real world, there is no perfect quantum, and every matter is an imperfect quantum.

Any primary physical quantity, such as space, time, electric potential, magnetic field, angular momentum, and components, is continuously changing and differentiable. Continuity is the basis of all basic differential physical equations, including Schr\"{o}dinger's equation and the Lagrangian in SM.

Particles are not point ones. They are the manifestation of energy in space-time or the disturbance of energy to space-time. Elementary particle tables, and composite particles composed of elementary particles, are some stable or intrinsic perturbation modes, such as electrons. The elementary particles that cannot exist alone, namely quarks, are part of a disturbance, similar to concepts such as the magnetic poles. The properties of particles are the manifestations of the fundamental interactions or the nature of space-time. Any particle is a collective mode in which all space-time points participate, and the properties of all space-time points are the same.

The Schr\"{o}dinger equation is the diffusion equation of quantum waves. The equation has nothing to do with the fundamental interactions. It only reflects the restriction of the global potential and the boundary conditions on the quantum wave, or in other words, what kind of intrinsic wave the potential and the boundary conditions will produce under specific energy. The state of the whole space all contributes to the formation of the eigenfunction. The fundamental interaction is local and complies with the principle of locality. Schr\"{o}dinger equation assumes that the interaction propagation does not take time (non-relativistic approximation). In the case of electromagnetic interaction, the assumption suggests the speed of light is infinite. In a real scenario, eigenmodes develop from continuous feedbacks of all restrictions in the whole space. For a broad-spectrum wave source, the eigenmodes prevail, and other frequencies quickly damp out. The solution of Schr\"{o}dinger's equation is the result of the infinite diffusion of a broad-spectrum wave source at any location or eigenwaves.

The solution of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation, the quantum wave function, is a real wave, and its amplitude modulus is the energy density.

Eigenmodes (eigenstates) are the dominant modes in all wave systems.

There are no point particles, and the wave-particle duality results from the wave interacting with particle events.

Physical quantity quantization is the emergence of the discreteness of eigenstates. Energy and angular momentum themselves are not quantized. Instead, the eigenstates of the bound system are discontinuous, corresponding to discrete energy levels and angular momentum.

The superposition property of quantum states comes from waves.

All ideal quantum states are global (wave). The Copenhagen measurement of quantum states only shows correlation, not causality. In the development of quantum eigenstates, the causality (principle of locality) of fundamental interactions disappears. The quantum state reflects the global conditions rather than the consequence of a particular instantaneous action (disturbance, signal, measurement, etc.). Naming the global property of quantum waves quantum nonlocality (quantum entanglement) and claiming quantum nonlocality is the true nature of physical particles is a misunderstanding of quantum theory. All quantum states are self-entangled or entangled with global conditions (global causality).

In a non-ideal case, quantum properties are only valid in the coherence range of quantum waves.

In a real scenario, all global quantum states need a short time to establish. In the microscopic process, because the interaction propagation speed (speed of light) is enormous and the scale is small, the quantum state is established almost instantaneously. It is very close to the ideal state. As the scale increases, the establishment time is longer, and the coherence and establishment time must be guaranteed. Therefore, ``quantum entanglement" requires a coherent laser to produce. As the distance between the two ends increases, the difficulty of establishing the global ``entanglement" state increases, and the measured correlation decreases.

We cannot separate matter from its background electromagnetic radiation environment.

The measurement defined in the Copenhagen interpretation is a random sampling of the quantum state. The state before and after the measurement is discontinuous. The fundamental physical process of measurement is interaction. Interaction-based measurement will affect the original physical system, so we cannot accurately extract complete information from any entity. Measurement-based reality is relative.

Unlike Newtonian determinism and Copenhagen indeterminism, Global Approximation Interpretation thinks the world is determined but only partially predictable due to the relativity of reality and the lack of precise numerical methods. The more macroscopic, the more predictable, the more microscopic, the more unpredictable.

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